• Definition: ‘A system of government in which the people have the right to determine who governs them and how’ (Sodaro, 2004)

Two key components

  • Elections
  • Guarantee of rights and freedoms

Regime Type 1

Regime Type 2


Interactive Map

The “Third Wave”

  • Three waves of democratization (Huntington)

    • First wave (1828-1926)
    • Second wave (1943-1972)
    • Third wave (1973 – present)
  • ‘Fourth wave’ = Arab Spring

The Arab Spring

The Third Reverse Wave

  • Democratic Backsliding: “[A] decline in the quality of democracy, when it occurs within democratic regimes, or in democratic qualities of governance in autocracies”, David Waldman

  • Freedom House: “third reverse wave” started in 2005

Wealth and Democracy


  • Definition: a political movement that champions the elite against the establishment (Judis)

  • Two types

    • left wing
    • right wing


  • Foa & Mounk
  • Ferguson